Client Satisfaction Research: Service Delivery Channels

Table of contents

This section explores clients' perceptions of the service received from Service Canada during the six months prior to the survey with a focus on service delivery channels - mail/fax, Internet (i.e. website), telephone and in-person service. Clients who used more than one service channel were only asked about one channel to limit response burden.

Telephone Service

In total, 1,236 clients completed the survey module that assessed telephone service. This includes 363 who answered the questions in the module focusing on 1-800 O'Canada, and 873 clients who focused on phone service with Service Canada more generallyFootnote 10.

Purpose of Phone Calls to Service Canada

Clients who called Service Canada were likely to call to obtain program information. This was almost equally true of 1-800 O'Canada users (28%) compared to other callers (27%). As well, both sets of callers were equally likely to call to update personal information (9%). However, this is where the similarity in reasons for calling ends.

Purpose of Call to Service Canada

Question 36. Earlier you mentioned that you had called Service Canada to obtain information or service. What was the purpose of those call(s)?

  • Obtain program information: 28% of 1-800 O-Canada telephone users and 27% for all other phone users.
  • General Information inquiries: 36% of 1-800 O-Canada telephone users and 16% for all other phone users.
  • Obtain information regarding benefits: 7% of 1-800 O-Canada telephone users and 15% for all other phone users.
  • Get program application information: 10% of 1-800 O-Canada telephone users and 13% for all other phone users.
  • Submit Employment Insurance claimant report: 7% of 1-800 O-Canada telephone users and 14% for all other phone users.
  • Update personal information: 9% of 1-800 O-Canada telephone users and 9% for all other phone users.
  • Inquire about application/decision: 6% of 1-800 O-Canada telephone users and 8% for all other phone users.
  • Other reasons: 15% of 1-800 O-Canada telephone users and 13% for all other phone users.

Those who used phone services. The1-800 O-Canada clients results are based on a survey size of 363 Canadians. All other phone clients results are based on a survey size of 873 Canadians. Multiple responses accepted.
Don't know/No response = 2 to 3%.

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Callers to 1-800 O'Canada were much more likely to call with general information questions than were other callers (36% vs. 16%), but were less likely to call to obtain information about benefits (7% vs. 15%), obtain program application information (10% vs. 13%), submit an EI claimant report (7% vs. 14%) or inquire about applications or other decisions (6% vs. 8%). Reasons included in the 'other' category are to obtain information related to an appeal, to discuss the outcome of an appeal, and to obtain a government publication, among others.

Telephone Numbers Seen as Easy to Find

Most clients who called Service Canada felt that it was easy to find the telephone number. Those who called 1-800 O'Canada were more likely to agree with this (82%) than other callers (76%). Relatively few clients disagreed and felt that the phone number was not easy to find (7-10%).

Perceptions of Phone Service: Ease of Finding

Please tell me how much you agree or disagree with the following statements about your phone call(s) during the last six months, using a 5-point scale where`1' means strongly disagree, `5' means strongly agree, and `3' means neither agree nor disagree.

Question 37. The Government telephone number was easy to find.

  • For 1-800 O-Canada telephone clients: 70% strongly agree, 12% agree, 9% neither agree nor disagree, 2% disagree and 5% strongly disagree.
  • For all other phone clients:
  • 62% strongly agree, 14% agree, 12% neither agree nor disagree, 4% disagree and 6% strongly disagree.
  • Those who used phone services. The1-800 O-Canada clients results are based on a survey size of 363 Canadians. All other phone clients results are based on a survey size of 873 Canadians.
  • Don't know/No response and Does no apply = 1% or less.

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Access to Service Significantly Better for 1-800 O'Canada Callers

Most clients agreed that they were able to get through to an agent without difficulty. However, this was much more likely to be the case for 1-800 O'Canada users (83%) compared to other callers (61%). Moreover, while only 7% of 1-800 O'Canada users disagreed that it was easy to get through to an agent, more than double this proportion of other callers (17%) felt this way.

Perceptions of Phone Service: Accessibility

Please tell me how much you agree or disagree with the following statements about your phone call(s) during the last six months, using a 5-point scale where`1' means strongly disagree, `5' means strongly agree, and `3' means neither agree nor disagree.

Question 38. You were able to get through to an agent without difficulty.

  • For 1-800 O-Canada telephone clients: 68% strongly agree, 15% agree, 10% neither agree nor disagree, 3% disagree and 4% strongly disagree.
  • For all other phone clients: 40% strongly agree, 21% agree, 20% neither agree nor disagree, 8% disagree and 9% strongly disagree.

Those who used phone services. The1-800 O-Canada clients results are based on a survey size of 363 Canadians. All other phone clients results are based on a survey size of 873 Canadians.

Don't know/No response and Does no apply = 1% or less.

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Most Satisfied with Overall Quality of Phone Service

Most clients expressed satisfaction with the overall quality of service they received during their phone call(s) to Service Canada during the previous six months. Once again, however, perceptions of service were noticeably more positive among 1-800 O'Canada callers. Fully 89% of these clients expressed satisfaction with the service received, with more than two-thirds (69%) saying they were very satisfied. For other callers, 78% expressed satisfaction, with approximately half (51%) saying they were very satisfied. Dissatisfaction was limited for both groups (4-5%).

Satisfaction with Overall Quality of Phone Service

Question 39. How satisfied were you with the overall quality of service you received during your phone call(s) to Service Canada in the last six months?

  • For 1-800 O-Canada telephone clients: 69% very satisfied, 20% satisfied, 6% neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 2% dissatisfied, and 2% very dissatisfied.
  • For all other phone clients: 51% very satisfied, 27% satisfied, 16% neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 2% dissatisfied, and 3% very dissatisfied.

Those who used phone services. The1-800 O-Canada clients results are based on a survey size of 363 Canadians. All other phone clients results are based on a survey size of 873 Canadians.Don't know/No response = 1%

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Reasons for Dissatisfaction with Phone Service

Clients who said they were dissatisfied with the quality of service they received during their phone call(s) to Service Canada were asked to identify the reason(s) for their dissatisfaction.

With a focus first on those who obtained phone service but not from 1-800 O'Canada (n=53), almost half (46%) said they got bounced around or had too many service interactions. This was followed by general problems with service staff (25%), staff not being sufficiently knowledgeable or understanding their needs (17%), and being unable to obtain the information or answers they needed (16%). Smaller numbers (7-8%) said they were unable to obtain service in the official language of their choice, or were unable to get answers or information about the Canada Pension Plan.

Reasons for Dissatisfaction with Phone Service
Excluding 1-800 O'Canada

Q40. Why were you not satisfied with the quality of service you received?
Reasons for Dissatisfaction %1
1 Caution should be exercised when interpreting these results due to the very small sample size.
Base: N=53; those who dissatisfied with phone service
Got bounced around/too many service interactions 46%
Problems with staff (general) 25%
Staff not knowledgeable/did not understand needs 17%
Unable to get information/answers 16%
Unable to obtain service in official language of choice 8%
Unable to get information/answers re: CPP 7%
Other 18%

Included in the 'other' category are the inability to obtain information on the Wage Earner Protection Program, CPP or OAS, the inability to get the needed information from the Service Canada website, having to use too many channels to get what was needed, and staff not being courteous.

In terms of 1-800 O'Canada callers, only 16 clients expressed any level of dissatisfaction with the quality of service they received. The main reason offered to explain their dissatisfaction was getting bounced around from one person to another or having too many service interactions. Following this, a few clients mentioned that they could not get the information or answers they needed when they called, that they had problems with service agents, that staff were not courteous, and that they were unable to get the information or answers they needed in relation to the Canada Pension Plan.

Internet Service (Website)

In total, 936 clients completed the survey module that assessed Internet service - specifically, Service Canada's website.

Reasons for Visiting Service Canada Website

Clients who visited Service Canada's website were most likely to do so to obtain program information (21%). The next three reasons, in terms of frequency, all have to do with Employment Insurance (EI): to view/obtain EI information (16%), to apply for EI (16%), and to submit an EI claimant report (12%). Obtaining information about Service Canada programs and services was also identified with some frequency (11%).

Purpose of Visit to Service Canada Website

Question 41. Earlier you mentioned that you had visited Service Canada's website to obtain information or service. What was the purpose of your website visit(s)?

  • 21% stated to obtain program information.
  • 16% stated to view/obtain Employment Insurance information.
  • 16% stated to apply for Employment insurance.
  • 12% stated to submit Employment insurance claimant report.
  • 11% stated to obtain Service Canada programs/services information.
  • 6% stated to use job ads/job bank.
  • 4% stated to obtain contact information.
  • 4% stated to view Canada Pension Plan Statement of Contribution.
  • 4% stated to obtain government form.
  • 3% stated to use My Service Canada Account.
  • 3% stated to apply for Canada Pension Plan - Old Age Security.
  • 3% stated to obtain general information.
  • 3% stated to update personal information.
  • 2% stated to apply for Apprenticeship Incentive Grant.
  • 2% stated to apply for Guaranteed Income Supplement.
  • 2% stated to obtain tax information.
  • 10% stated for other reasons.

These results are based on a survey size of 936 Canadians; those who visited website. Multiple responses accepted.
Don't know/No Response - 3%

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

All other reasons were identified by 6% or less and can be seen in the accompanying graph. Reasons included in the 'other' category are visiting the site to view/update personal information, calculate retirement income using the Canadian Retirement Income Calculator, view CPP, OAS or EI tax slips using TISO, obtain a government publication, update personal information, and apply for AIG, ACG or WEPP.

Positive Perceptions of Service Canada Website

Clients were asked to rate their level of agreement with a series of statements about the Service Canada website (using a 5-point scale: 1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The statements were:

  • It was easy to find what you were looking for.
  • The site had the information you needed.
  • Search engine worked well.
  • It was easy to complete and submit an online application for Employment InsuranceFootnote 11.
  • My Service Canada Account is very useful for things like viewing and updating my personal informationFootnote 12.

Perceptions of the website were largely positive, with a clear majority of clients agreeing with each of these statements. Moreover, a majority said they were very satisfied with each of these issues, except for one - ease of finding what they were looking for (40% were very satisfied).

Heading the list in terms of positive perceptions was ease of submitting an EI application - 82% of EI clients agreed with this, with 61% expressing strong agreement. As well, 83% of all website users agreed that the site had the information they needed, 77% that My Service Account is very useful (among account users), 71% that the search engine worked well, and 68% that it was easy to find what they were looking for.

Perceptions of Internet Service

Questions 42 to 26. Please tell me how much you agree or disagree with the following statements about the Service Canada website using a 5-point scale where `1' means strongly disagree, `5' means strongly agree, and `3' means neither agree nor disagree.

  • Easy to submit Employment Insurance application (Asked only for Employment Insurances clients. N=504): 61% strongly agree, 21% agree, 8% neither agree nor disagree, and 4% disagree.
  • Site has what needed: 55% strongly agree, 28% agree, 11% neither agree nor disagree, and 3% disagree.
  • My Service Canada Account is very useful (Does not apply removed. N=170): 51% strongly agree, 26% agree, 14% neither agree nor disagree, and 3% disagree
  • Search engine worked well: 51% strongly agree, 20% agree, 12% neither agree nor disagree, and 4% disagree.
  • Easy to find what needed: 40% strongly agree, 28% agree, 20% neither agree nor disagree, 6% disagree, and 4% strongly disagree.

These results are based on a survey size of 936 Canadians; those who visited website. Don't Know/No Response = 2% or less. Does not apply = 7% or less.

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

General Satisfaction with Internet Service

Most clients expressed satisfaction with the overall quality of service they received through the Internet during the previous six months. In total, 79% expressed satisfaction, with exactly half (50%) saying they were very satisfied. Few expressed any degree of dissatisfaction (4%).

Satisfaction with Overall Quality of Internet Service

Question 47. How satisfied were you with the overall quality of the service you received through the Internet during the last six months?

  • 50% very satisfied, 29% satisfied, 16% neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 3% dissatisfied, and 1% very dissatisfied.

These results are based on a survey size of 936 Canadians; those who visited website. Don't know/No response = 1%.

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Reasons for Dissatisfaction with Internet Service

Clients who said they were dissatisfied with the quality of service they received through the Internet (n=48) were asked to identify the reason(s) for their dissatisfaction.

Heading the list, and cited by 54%, was the perception that the website is difficult to navigate and that it is hard to find needed information. Significantly fewer said they were unable to obtain information or get answers related to Old Age Security (22%), the Canada Pension Plan (18%), or Employment Insurance (10%).

Inability to obtain information or get answers on the following programs was included in the 'other' category: the Apprenticeship Incentive Grant, the Wage Earner Protection Program, and on a Social Insurance Number. As well, several respondents mentioned that they were unable to apply for Employment Insurance online using EI Appliweb.

Reasons for Dissatisfaction with Internet Service

Q48. Why were you not satisfied with the quality of the service you received through Service Canada's website?
Reasons for Dissatisfaction %1
1 Caution should be exercised when interpreting these results due to the very small sample size.
Base: N=48; those who dissatisfied with Internet service
Website was difficult to navigate / difficult to find relevant information 54%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on Old Age Security 22%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on Canada Pension Plan 18%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on Employment Insurance 10%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on how to update personal information 4%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on Service Canada On-line Service 1%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on the Apprenticeship Completion Grant 1%
Other 24%

In-Person Service

In total, 789 clients completed the survey module that assessed in-person service, having visited a Service Canada office.

Purpose of Visit to Service Canada Office

Many clients who visited a Service Canada office did so to apply for a government program. This includes 15% who applied for EI, 9% for CPP, 9% for OAS, 6% for a SIN, 3% for a passport, and 2% for the GIS. Other top reasons included submitting an EI claimant report (16%), obtaining program information (12%), completing paperwork (unspecified) (11%) and obtaining a government form (7%).

All other reasons were identified by 5% or less and can be seen in the accompanying graph. Reasons included in the 'other' category are to obtain a health card, to apply for AIG or ACG, to attend a group session related to EI, for employment training, to discuss the outcome of a decision, and to apply for benefits in general, among other reasons.

Purpose of Visit to Service Canada Office

Question 49. Earlier you mentioned that you had visited a Service Canada office to obtain information or service. What was the purpose of the visit(s)?

  • 16% stated to submit Employment Insurance claimant report.
  • 15% stated to apply for Employment Insurance.
  • 12% stated to obtain program information.
  • 11% stated to complete paperwork.
  • 9% stated to apply for Canada Pension Plan.
  • 9% stated to apply for Old Age Security.
  • 7% stated to obtain a government form.
  • 6% stated to apply for/get a Social Insurance Number.
  • 5% stated to obtain information regarding benefits.
  • 5% stated to update personal information.
  • 3% stated to apply for a passport.
  • 3% stated to obtain/provide information for appeal.
  • 3% stated to inquire about application/appeal.
  • 2% stated to apply for the Guaranteed income Supplement.
  • 2% stated to use job ads/job bank.
  • 2% stated for employment training.
  • 2% stated to obtain a publication.
  • 13% stated for other reasons.

These results are based on a survey size of 790 Canadians; those who visited an office. Multiple responses accepted.
Don't know/No response = 3%

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Reasons for Visiting Office Instead of Using Other Service Channels

Clients who visited a Service Canada office were asked why they visited the office to obtain the information or service they needed instead of using the Internet, the phone or mail to get what they needed. The main reason, by far, was the simple preference for in-person service, identified by 41%. Other top reasons include the proximity of the office (19%), not having access to a computer or the Internet (19%), thinking this would result in better or quicker service (15%), or having difficulty completing a form on the Internet (10%).

A range of other reasons were identified by relatively small numbers. Reasons included in the 'other' category are having an appointment, needing clarification of information obtained through the mail or over the phone, and having obtained what was needed from the website and then going to the office to complete a transaction.

Reasons for Visiting Service Canada Office

Question 50. Why did you choose to visit a Service Canada office to obtain this information or service instead of using the internet, the phone or mail to obtain what you needed?

  • 41% stated they prefer in-person service.
  • 19% stated proximity of office.
  • 19% stated no access to computer/internet.
  • 15% stated better/quicker service.
  • 10% stated not able to complete form on the internet.
  • 7% stated they needed to obtain/submit documents.
  • 3% stated general convenience.
  • 3% stated they could not find everything on the Service Canada website.
  • 3% stated telephone lines were busy.
  • 3% stated they were told to visit the office.
  • 2% stated concern regarding security of personal information.
  • 2% stated clarity of internet information.
  • 1% stated to pick up materials/brochures/pamphlets.
  • 1% stated to use in-office computers/kiosks.
  • 4% stated other reasons.

These results are based on a survey size of 789 Canadians; those who visited an office. Multiple responses accepted.
Don't know/No responses = 1%

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Positive Perceptions of In-Person Service

Clients were asked to rate their level of agreement with two statements about the service they received during their visit to a Service Canada office (using a 5-point scale: 1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The statements were:

  • You were able to get the information you needed.
  • You waited a reasonable amount of time before getting the service.

In total, 89% agreed that they were able to get the information they needed, with 75% expressing strong agreement. As well, 86% agreed that their wait time was reasonable, with 63% strongly agreeing. The level of disagreement with both statements was very small.

Perceptions of In-Person Services

Questions 51 and 52. Please tell me how much you agree or disagree with the followings statements about your visit(s) to the office, using a 5-point scale where `1' means strongly disagree, `5' means strongly agree, and `3' means neither agree nor disagree.

  • Reasonable wait for service:
  • 63% strongly agree, 23% agree, and 8% neither agree nor disagree.
  • Able to get information needed:
  • 75% strongly agree, 14% agree, and 6% neither agree nor disagree.

These results are based on a survey size of 789 Canadians; those who visited an office.
Don't know/No response = 1% or less. Does not apply = 1 to 2%

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Widespread Satisfaction with In-Person Service

In total, 88% of clients expressed satisfaction with the overall quality of service they received at a Service Canada office during the previous six months (66% were very satisfied). Only 5% expressed dissatisfaction, but most of these were very dissatisfied.

Satisfaction with Overall Quality of In-Person Service

Question 53. How satisfied were you with the overall quality of service you received at the Service Canada office in the last six months?

  • 66% very satisfied, 22% satisfied, 6% neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 1% dissatisfied, and 4% very dissatisfied.

These results are based on a survey size of 789 Canadians; those who visited an office. Don't know/No response = 1%

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Reasons for Dissatisfaction with In-Person Service

Clients who said they were dissatisfied with the quality of service they received at a Service Canada office (n=28) were asked to identify the reason(s) for their dissatisfaction. Heading the list was general difficulties with service, followed by problems with the information received or the service staff. Other reasons for dissatisfaction included being unable to obtain information or get answers about the Canada Pension Plan, Old Age Security, the Wage Earner Protection Program or Social Insurance Numbers, getting bounced around from one person to another, and having to use too many service channels to obtain the needed information or service.

Mail-Fax Service

In total, 634 clients completed the survey module that assessed mail-fax service.

Purpose of Contacting Service Canada By Mail or Fax

Most clients who contacted Service Canada by mail or fax did so to apply for a program. This includes 27% who said they applied for a program without identifying a specific program, while 8% applied for CPP, and 5% for each of OAS and the GIS. Other top reasons included obtaining or submitting documents (14%), obtaining general information (8%), getting program application information (7%) and obtaining information about benefits (7%).

Purpose of Contacting Service Canada by Mail/Fax

Question 55. Earlier you mentioned that you used the regular mail or fax to obtain information or service from Service Canada. What was the purpose of your mail or fax contact with the government?

  • 27% stated to apply for a program.
  • 14% stated to obtain/submit documents.
  • 8% stated to apply for the Canada Pension Plan.
  • 8% stated to obtain general information.
  • 7% stated to get program application information.
  • 7% stated to obtain information regarding benefits.
  • 6% stated to update personal information.
  • 5% stated to apply for Old Age Security.
  • 5% stated to apply for the Guaranteed Income Supplement.
  • 3% stated to inquire about Canada Pension Plan Disability.
  • 3% stated to submit Employment Insurance claimant report.
  • 2% stated to discuss status/outcome of an appeal.
  • 14% stated for other reasons.

These results are based on a survey size of 643 Canadians; those who used mail/fax. Multiple responses accepted.
Don't know/No response = 2%.

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

All other reasons were identified by 6% or less and can be seen in the accompanying graph. Reasons included in the 'other' category are applying for various government programs, applying for a SIN, applying for benefits in general, applying for a passport, obtaining labour market information, and obtaining information about filing an appeal, among other reasons.

Lower Level of Satisfaction with Mail-Fax Service

In total, 72% of clients expressed satisfaction with the overall quality of service they received in terms of their contact with Service Canada by mail or fax (49% were very satisfied). Conversely, 10% expressed dissatisfaction.

Satisfaction with Overall Quality of Mail/Fax Service

Question 56. How satisfied were you with the overall quality of the service you received in terms of your contact with Service Canada by mail or fax?

  • 49% very satisfied, 23% satisfied, 17% neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 6% dissatisfied, and 4% very dissatisfied.
  • These results are based on a survey size of 634 Canadians; those who used mail/fax. Don't know/No response = 1%

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Reasons for Dissatisfaction with Mail-Fax Service

Clients who said they were dissatisfied with the quality of service they received in terms of mail or fax contact with Service Canada (n=52) were asked to identify the reason(s) for their dissatisfaction.

Almost half (46%) said the response they received was slow in coming, while 26% pointed to not receiving the information they requested, and 24% to errors or mistakes made by Service Canada staff. A further 11% felt that staff were not courteous at some point during their service interaction. Recall that numerous clients used multiple channels to deal with Service Canada (i.e. they may have received a letter from Service Canada, and then called the Agency to follow-up further, for example).

Other reasons were identified by small numbers.

Reasons for Dissatisfaction with Mail/Fax Service

Q57. Why were you not satisfied with the quality of the service?
Reasons for Dissatisfaction %1
1 Caution should be exercised when interpreting these results due to the very small sample size.
Base: N=52; those who dissatisfied with mail/fax service
Slow response/reply to request 46%
Did not receive information requested 26%
Errors/mistakes made by staff 24%
Staff were not courteous 11%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on Old Age Security 6%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on Canada Pension Plan 5%
Unable to obtain info/get answers on Employment Insurance 4%
Other 4%

Caution should be exercised when interpreting these results due to the very small sample size.

Comparison of Satisfaction with Service Channels

The following graph presents the levels of satisfaction with each of these service channels. As can be seen, satisfaction was highest for 1-800 O'Canada (89%) and in-person service (88%), and lowest for mail-fax service (72%).

Overall Satisfaction with Service Channels

1-800 O-Canada (Includes only 1-800 O-Canada clients recruited through the phone line who acknowledged receiving service.)

  • 69% very satisfied and 20% satisfied. Overall satisfaction = 89%.
  • In-Person: 66% very satisfied and 22% satisfied. Overall satisfaction = 88%.
  • Internet: 50% very satisfied and 29% satisfied. Overall satisfaction = 75%.
  • Phone (Excludes 1-800 O-Canada clients.) 51% very satisfied and 27% satisfied. Overall satisfaction = 78%.
  • Mail/Fax: 49% very satisfied and 23% satisfied. Overall satisfaction = 72%.

Prepared by Phoenix SPI for Service Canada; January 2011.

Footnotes

Footnote 10

From previous research, we know that clients have considerable difficulty distinguishing between different 1-800 services. For this reason, only those clients that were directly recruited for this research through 1-800 O'Canada, and who acknowledged having used this service, were asked about it. All other respondents were asked about phone service generically (even though some of these clients likely had used 1-800 O'Canada as well).

Return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

Asked of EI clients only.

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

If respondent did not have a My Service Canada Account, this was coded as 'Not Applicable'.

Return to footnote 12 referrer

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